The Linux permission system works differently from Windows. We have some numbers associated with the permission. So, for example:
1 – Execution
2 – Writing
4 – Reading
So you always have to make some math to apply for the permission. If you want to assign the execution permission you can set as
1, write permission
2 and reading permission
Write + Reading is equal to
6, so the permission is
6. If you want
Read + Write + Execution is equal to
7. Let’s create a file and check its permissions:
How to check file permissions
alisson@devops:~$ touch new_file
alisson@devops:~$ ls -la new_file
-rw-rw-r-- 1 alisson alisson 0 Feb 20 19:21 new_file
The command touch is responsible to change the access time of any file. If the file does not exist, it creates one. Checking the output, you can see that we have the permissions:
read+write, read, but what means that sequence:
user – group – other
In the same line, we can see
alisson alisson, the first one is the user owner for this file and the second one is the group. By default, all the users created on Linux have a group with the same name as the user.
If you remember the numbers which represent the permission, we can make a calculation,
read+write = 4 + 2 = 6. Then we have the following permissions:
Therefore, the user can read and write. Users from the same group can also read and write, users who do not belong to the group can just read.
Now, we can create a directory and analyze the permissions as we did just now:
How to check permissions for directory
alisson@devops:~$ mkdir new_folder
alisson@devops:~$ ls -la | grep new_folder
drwxrwxr-x 2 alisson alisson 4096 Feb 20 19:29 new_folder
Analyzing the permissions, we can see,
read + write + execution for the user and group, and
read + execution for the others. If we make the following association:
read + write + execution = 4 + 2 + 1 = 7
read + execution = 4 + 1 = 5
So, whenever you give 777 that means, you are proving read + write + execution to user, group and owner.
How to give file permission: syntax you need
$ chmod 777 newfile
Organizations need speed deployment at scale. AWS provides a service called code pipeline, which is a four-step process explained here.
Date conversion in SQL simplifies your work, and you will get the desired result. These two functions most people use in the production code.
The performance and the approach of Adaptive MapReduce in Hadoop explained.