Here’re three python’s Oops examples. Those are Inheritance, Polymorphism, and Overloading. Added notes under each example to know how it can be applied in projects.
1. Python: Single Inheritance Example
class Base: def __init__(self): self.name="Lena Headey" def display(self): print(self.name) class Derived(Base): #inherits from class, Base def disp(self): print("Derived method") o=Derived() #Derived class object o.display() #Base class method o.disp() #Derived class method
This program consists of two classes, viz., ‘Base’ and ‘Derived’. The derived class inherits the base class properties through the statement ‘class Derived(Base):’.
This means that the methods and attributes of the class ‘Base’ can be accessed through an instance of class ‘Derived’. Check out 4 Top Python Oops Concepts Simplify Your Coding.
2. Python Polymorphism Example
self.s="Winter is coming!"
self.s="Winter is here!"
The method ‘display()’ is overloaded in a different way. The method is not defined twice but still performs different functions in two different situations.
The argument list of the method ‘display(‘) contains a statement, ‘x=”winter is coming!”’.
This essentially means that in the absence of an argument in the calling method object, x will contain the string, “winter is coming!” by default.
In case an explicit argument is passed while invoking the method, the variable x will no longer contain the default value.
Instead, it will hold the value passed in the argument while invoking a method.
3. Python Overloading Example
print("o1.x= ",o1.x," o1.y= ",o1.y)
print("o2.x= ",o2.x," o2.y= ",o2.y)
print("After adding o1 and o2:")
print("o3.x= ",o3.x," o3.y= ",o3.y)
The operator, ’+’ is overloaded by redefining the ‘__add__()’ method that adds the values stored in two objects and returns an object of a similar type. Here is Basic Python Oops Concepts.
It is important to note that the first operand, ‘o1’, invokes the ‘__add__()’ method, and the instance, ‘o2’, is passed as a reference to this method.
The returned object is stored in ‘o3’, which is then used to access the added results.